Validating an accounting theory karl popper
A scientist measuring and recording everything that confronts him observes a tree with leaves.
A second tree, and a third, and many others, are all observed to have leaves.
Moreover, induction fails to arrive at universal truths.
No matter how many singular statements may be accumulated, no universal statement can be logically justified by such an accumulation of observations.
Natural selection and other causal processes of evolution are investigated by formulating and testing hypotheses. Beagle, as naturalist, I was much struck with certain facts in the distribution of the inhabitants of South America, and in the geological relations of the present to the past inhabitants of that continent.1) proceeded in his scientific research and how he described it for public consumption, between what he said in his published writings about his scientific methodology and what he wrote in his notebooks, correspondence, and autobiography. After 5 years' work I allowed myself to speculate on the subject, and drew up some short notes; these I enlarged in 1844 into a sketch of the conclusions, which then seemed to me probable: from that period to the present day I have steadily pursued the same object.” Darwin claims to have followed the inductionist canon prevalent among British contemporary philosophers and economists, such as John Stuart Mill (1), and earlier authorities, notably the statesman and philosopher, Francis Bacon in his (2).The inductionist canon called for making observations without prejudice as to what they might mean and accumulating observations related to a particular subject so that a universal statement or conclusion could eventually emerge from them. The facts are very different from these claims, however.Induction was proposed by Bacon and Mill as a method of achieving objectivity while avoiding subjective preconceptions and obtaining empirical rather than abstract or metaphysical knowledge.In its extreme form the inductivist canon would hold that a scientist should observe any phenomena that he encounters in his experience and record them without any preconceptions as to what to observe or what the truth about his observations might be.